One type of Betawi music that gets the strong influence of European music. In Tanjidor music instrument is the most widely played brass instruments, like clarinets, pistons, trombone and trumpet. What kind of music is featured on the 18th century, which was then played to accompany a wedding celebration or paraded. But lately the music tanjidor often appear to welcome the great guest. Is a musical ensemble whose name is born during the colonial Dutch East Indies in Batavia (Jakarta). The word "tanjidor" derives from the word in Portuguese tangedor, which means "strings of musical instruments (stringed instruments)." But in reality, the name Tanjidor no longer appropriate in terms of the Portuguese original. But that is still the same music system (tonesystem) from tangedor, namely, twelve tone system of diatonic or equidistant average (Twelve equally spaced tones). Tanjidor ensemble consists of musical instruments such as the following: clarinet (brass), piston (brass), trombone (brass), tenor saxophone (brass), bass saxophone (brass), drums (membranophone), cymbals (percussion), and side drums (drums).
Comprised players and seven to 10 people. They use equipment such European music, to play a diatonic reportoir barrel or barreled songs pelog even slendro. Of course there was a treat that was forced, because of two opposite kinds of scales are typically imposed on the equipment containing the technical ability diatonic tones. Because the sound of percussion material, and the state of the tools themselves are not perfect anymore pure play a diatonic tuning, then the adaptation of hearing over time is also accepted.
Tanjidor players mostly from the villages on the outskirts of Jakarta, such as in Tangerang, etc. Indramayu. Brought in, they can not read music or numeral, and the songs, nor will they know and where their origins. But all aural acceptance of those earlier. It is possible that these people are ex-soldiers Dutch East Indies, and the music section. Thus, musical instrument Tanjidor encountered then there is nothing new, most everything is bertambalan solder and yellow, because the oxidation process.
In ancient times dikala season working the fields, they hung musical instruments at his home Tanjidor gedeg begitusaja on the wall or board, without a protective box. After harvest is completed, then the group of musicians are struggling again with the tools they Tanjidor, to then show musical skill with a visit from house to house, from restaurant to restaurant in Jakarta, Cirebon, to perform the work which was then better known as ngamen or ngamen . Music Tanjidor is usually familiar with the celebration of China, the Fem Cap Co.; in Cirebon, there is a mosque complex at the entrance and the tomb of Sunan Gunung Jati: Muslims celebrate the big day, or days that a tradition of alms earth farming communities in the Cirebon. Among the famous songs are Warung Pojok.
Among the other songs are often sung by the orchestra Tanjidor, among others Kramton, Bananas, Cente Manis, Keramat Karam (Kramat Karem), Merpati Putih, Surilang, etc.. Keramat Karam songs was born because of the eruption of Mount Krakatoa which claimed many victims. The songs played on the basis of the desire of the Batavia city community in the 1920s and proved popular and was considered 'new song' at the time. The song is a song Kramton and Bananas Netherlands rhythmic march.
Tanjidor as an original musical art forms Betawi, played in groups. About the origins and history of the emergence of this art, there are several different opinions. According to historical researchers Abdurrachman Paramita, in Portuguese there Tanger word meaning "to play a musical instrument." A tangedor essentially playing a musical instrument strings in the room. The term tangedores then mean brass bands played on the strings of the military or religious personnel.
Until now in Portugal tangedores follow religious marches in honor of patron community feast, the feast of St. Gregory eg, protective Lisbon City, tangga124 June. The tools used are the Turkish drums, drums are, flute and various horns. Usually the parade was followed by large dolls that always run in pairs. One form of male, others female, was brought by two men, one sitting on the shoulders of people who walk. Dolls similar to Ondel-ondel Tanjidor entourage that accompanied the Betawi.
Ernst Heinz, a Dutch expert who conducted research Musicology folk music on the outskirts of Jakarta in 1973, argues that folk music was coming from the suburbs bondsman who posted some music for his employer. Music players initially consisted of slaves and soldiers. After slavery was abolished, they were replaced by hired musicians. But clearly the musicians Indonesian people from different regions, given the European musical instruments and ordered to serve a variety of music at various events. Musical instruments used are mostly wind instruments such as clarinets, French horns, comets and drums Turkey.
At first, they play songs of Europe because they have to accompany the dances, polkas, marches, and songs lancier parade. Gradually they began to play songs and rhythms typical of Batavia. Strong-strong instrument can be used down through generations. Once a player no longer part of Western people in the household, born crowds of amateurs who still call themselves "Tanjidor".
Historians of old Batavia, Dr. F. De Haan argues that this traveling musician from orchestra-conductor VOC slave era. In his work entitled Priangan, de Haan shows a record of Cornelia de Bevers has 59 people who bought slaves in the year 1689. The division of labor among the slaves, among others, "Three or four boys walking behind me and my husband when we were walking out, plus the same number of female slaves." At meal time the couple was accompanied by five to six slave maid table, then there are again three male slaves, each of which served to play bass, violin, and harp as a musical accompaniment to eat.
Valentjn also mentioned about the concerts played by the slaves. Generally they use the instrument strings. Orchestra-the orchestra was more complete when the players were given extra brass. Nekara (pauken), Turkish drums and triangle, as well as the orchestra's Governor General Valckenier (1737) in lieu of 15 people. Medium Anfreas Cleyer a high-ranking Company, said "having a full band at his home, solely from the slaves who are skilled play any instrument. ..". Many sources say that the orchestra is joined auctioned house when his master died.